Friday, February 7, 2020
Professionalism vs Commercialism - Essay Example Accordingly, the following analysis will seek to define some of the key ways in which commercialism affects professionalism, and the way in which growing levels of commercialism are affecting professions in general. It is the hope of this author that such a level of analysis will help to bring and more complete understanding with regards to the dynamics that currently shape the world in which we live. With regards to the way in which growing levels of commercialism currently affect professionalism, one does not need to look very hard to see the way in which they growing emphasis upon profits and profitability is defining the business world. As compared to but a few decades past, the level to which business indices are focusing upon overall profitability and the bottom line has greatly reduced the level of professionalism that can be exhibited on the personal level. This is of course due to the fact that greater and greater degrees of freedom with regards to how a given profession is performed are being removed in the face of increasing regulatory oversight and the means by which standardization is pushed above all else. Ultimately, the perennial back-and-forth that is realized between all individuals and seek to display a level of professionalism within their work is called into question with regards to the incessant drive to maximize profitability. Furthermore, due to the fact that more and more firms/entities are operating at the very margins, the overall level that professionalism within a given work spirit is stressed is necessarily reduced. In such a way, the ultimate mantra becomes a maximization of profit. Within such a dynamic, the means by which professionalism can be fostered from within the firm is necessarily reduced. This of course has a compound affect not only on the means by which work is accomplished but also with regards to how the individual worker views the importance of professionalism. Whereas before professionalism was encouraged both fro m the personal standpoint as well is a systemic standpoint, the current dynamic sees a situation in which more and more often the individual alone is the only one seeking to promote professionalism in the place of commercialism. Unfortunately, the fact of the matter is that many firms and entities do not realize that fostering greater professionalism within their respective employees would necessarily have a compound affect not only of producing a better quality of product/services but would also have the ancillary affect of increasing profitability and serving mankind to a greater degree. However, like so many choices within the business world, the short-term gains are championed over long-term eventualities. In this way, professionalism is cheated out of its do merit as a means of maximizing the short-term benefits that commercialization and profit generation can necessarily entail. As a means of looking forward, it must be understood by the reader that a far better approach would be to realize that although commercialization holds the potential to generate profits, so too does fostering a greater and higher appreciation for professionalism within whatever business entity/firm is in question (Day 166). As with so many of the solid business choices that exists within theory and application, recent history as evidenced the fact that as a means of hoping to generate impressive numbers and
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Salem witch trials Essay Fear of Devil-worshipping and witchcraft swept through Salem, Massachusetts, like a plague. During the years of 1692 and 1693, more than 200 peopleÃ¢â¬âmen, women, and even childrenÃ¢â¬âwere accused of witchcraft (Blumberg). Words of friends, neighbors, and even complete strangers put many peoples lives in danger. Nineteen people were hanged, one person pressed to death, and four known deaths occurred in prison. The accusations, the trials, the executions, and the events leading up to and after the deaths, kept Salem, Massachusetts on its toes in this mass paranoia. It was 1689, according to Blumberg, when Reverend Samuel Parris became the first ordained minister of Salem Village. The attempt to search for a new minister had failed, since the town of Salem had split to form small outskirts known as Salem Farms and the original Salem Village, and several Reverends and ministers before Parris were opposed against, or strongly disliked by the people. Parris answered to the call of ministry and moved to Salem Village with his wife, daughter Elizabeth Betty Parris, age 9, niece Abigail Williams, age 11, and his Barbados slave, Tituba and her husband John (Gribben). Gribben wrote about Parriss daughter and niece spending time alone with the Barbados slave, Tituba, while unattended by any other adults. Parris trusted the slave for he had known her since he had bought her, and she was lazy and petulant. Parris did not see Tituba as a threat and left the girls in her watch many times. As time passed, more girls would come and spend time with the Barbado s slave. Tituba would tell the girls stories about Barbados, and of the witch doctors that lived there. The girls were interested and asked many questions concerning the topic of magic and witches. Tituba, who hardly believed in sorcery herself, had given in and showed the girls how to break an egg, so just the egg white would be suspended in a bowl of water to show who their future husbands would be. These lessons continued in secrecy with Tituba. Several girls were torn between the risk of the situation and the discussion of witchcraft. Abigail Williams saw this as a mere game, and was very mischievous. Elizabeth on the other hand was rather nervous about the situation and guilt began to eat away at her. The guilt had a strong effect on the younger girl. She became rather distracted, and confused. She babbled nonsense, woke up screaming at night, and became weak, refusing or even forgetting to eat. But her guilt did not give her the courage to report to Reverend Parris what was taking place, and so the meetings continued. ItÃ was until a girl, who had to know what trade her sweetheart would be, saw a coffin suspended in the egg white of the bowl, that all hell broke loose. It was then that Elizabeth broke and began to fall into strange episodes or fits of convulsive seizures, blasphemous screaming, and trance-like states (Gribben, Salem). Tituba began to fear foul play and witchcraft had befallen the young girls. She baked a witchs cake that contained the urine of Abigail and Elizabeth and fed it to a dog, hoping the tormentor would be revealed. The dog became distracted and ran o ff, leaving Tituba with a feeling of hopelessness and paranoia. It wasnt until days later that Tituba had been blamed for the witchcraft. Elizabeth was in the middle of a violent fit. Tituba sent Abigail to fetch Reverend Parris while she tried to calm the crazed girl. The Reverend came in and tried to calm the girl as well. He sent for a doctor, but the doctor could not place the cause of fits in Elizabeth or Abigail, who showed the same symptoms days later. The doctor told Parris that the Evil Hand was among them, and left. When Elizabeth began to come to after one of her many spells, Parris asked the girl who it was that hurt her, but she didnt answer. He looked about the room and settled on Tituba. When he asked if Tituba had caused this, Elizabeth repeated the name before going silent. Tituba confessed and Parris had Tituba arrested (Gribben). This wasnt the end of their paranoia; in fact it was only the beginning. Several other Salem girls began having similar fits, and among them was Ann Putnam. Sarah Good and Sarah Osborne were accused of witchcraft, after the Barbados slave Tituba. Sarah Good was just a homeless beggar, and Sarah Osborne was an elderly impoverished woman (Blumberg). The three girls were taken to trial; however, Sarah Good and Sarah Osborne tried to claim their innocence. They were found guilty and taken to jail. Tituba, on the other hand, confessed to practicing and showing the girls witchcraft. Tituba claimed to have seen the Devil and signing his book, and also told of other witches in Salem Village who were seeking to destroy the Puritans. As more and more girls began to suffer from this witchcraft, more and more people were being blamed for the black magic (Blumberg). Most of the people were accused were well known, and some were even liked. The most damning accusation was against Martha Corey, an important member of the Puritan congregation. This accusation sent the Puritan community of Salem Village into a frenzy, fearing that Satans evilÃ had reached the heart of the community (Salem). The accusations didnt stop though; men, women, and children were still accused and the paranoia was at its highest. Dorothy Dorcas Good was the first and only child at the age of four to be accused of witchcraft. Her timid answers were seen as a confession and she was arrested with her mother, Sarah Good. Dorothy stayed in jail for eight months before she witnessed her mother being taken and hanged (Linder). Accusations began to pile up, and many people were arrested, but no executions had been made until early June. Bridget Bishop was the first person hanged for witchcraft on June 10th, 1692 (Blumberg). After her death, many more witches were put to death by the gallows, on a place soon to be known as Gallows Hill. Five people were hanged in the month of July, five in August, and eight in September. A total of nineteen people had been killed by the gallows (Blumberg). Martha and Giles Corey were both accused of practicing witchcraft and arrested. Giles Corey refused a trial and by the law of their church, had large stones placed on him until he agreed to one. He never did, and was eventually pressed to death with large stones on September 19, 1692, three days before Marthas hanging (Salem). The trials to condemn the accused varied. There were five ways for the people to claim their innocence, but many people were found guilty despite their attempts. The first trial was reciting the Lords Prayer (Witchcraft). If one could not recite the prayer, it was said that Satan was at work and blocked ones tongue from speaking the Word (Gribben). A former pastor, George Burroughs, was accused of witchcraft and tried. He failed his trial in court, and as he was taken out to the gallows, he stopped before the crowd and recited the Lords Prayer word for word. The crowd was taken by shock, but Cotton Mather told them the man had his time in court and he failed. G eorge Burroughs was put to death at the gallows (Linder). The second trial was the search for physical evidence such as warts, birthmarks, moles, and blemishes. These marks were said to be places on which demons suckled on witches to gain their power. The testimony of the accusers against the witches, spectral evidence, and the confession of the witches themselves, were the last three trials against the accused to convict them of witchcraft or send them home (Witchcraft). However, many were convicted and most were found guilty. Some people saw that the confessions were a way to escape the gallows, but would spend time in prisonÃ instead for practicing witchcraft (Linder). Many were still found guilty and put to death by hanging. According to Linder, as many as nineteen accused witches were hanged on Gallows Hill and one man was pressed to death in 1692. The dead are listed as followed, along with their date of death. Bridget Bishop, the first person hanged, died on June 10th, 1692 . Five women died on July 19th, 1692. The women were Rebecca Nurse, Sarah Good, Susannah Martin, Elizabeth Howe, and Sarah Wildes. Four men and one woman were hanged on August 19th, 1692. They were George Burroughs, Martha Carrier, John Willard, George Jacobs, Sr., and John Proctor. Giles Corey was the only death that occurred by being pressed to death on September 19th, 1692. On September 22nd, 1692, Martha Corey, Mary Eastey, Ann Pudeator, Alice Parker, Mary Parker, Wilmott Redd, Margaret Scott, and Samuel Wardwell were hanged. The last four known deaths did not have a known date, but the following people died in prison: Sarah Osborne, Roger Toothaker, Lyndia Dustin, and Ann Foster. Two dogs were also killed, for many believed that Satan could take form of the hounds (Witchcraft). The hysteria, convictions, and condemnations began to seize and die down in the winter months (Salem). Governor Phipps called an end to the witch trials, and relieved all those remaining in prison, after hi s wife had been accused of witchcraft (Blumberg). Over 250 years after the Salem witch trials, the state of Massachusetts found the trials to have been unlawful and the names were cleared of charges. The state gave money to the heirs of the deceased, and apologized for the trials that had taken place (Blumberg).
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Sometimes there are two novels that have the same theme, and sometimes they have the same plot, but in the case of the two novels, The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, and the novel Goodbye Columbus, by Philip Roth they explore the same dynamics of the chase of the American dream. In both novels there are similar themes, they both use the idea of sex and money as a form of power. Both novels can relate to each other because the authors decided to show how the pursuit of the American dream may not always be a good thing, and how sex and money can cause problems in that pursuit. Overall in both of the novels the reoccurring theme of sex, money and the search for the American dream is present and in both novels the authors show that just because it may seem like someone may have everything, that is not always the case. The idea of the new world verses the old world is a major premise in the novel Goodbye Columbus. In this novel there are two families who live very different lives. The Patimkin family, and the Klugman family. They represent the struggle between the new and old world. The Patimkin family is the wealthy middle-class family and they live in the hills, they also belong to the country club, which is a representation of having money and living the American dream. The idea of belonging to the country club is a major part of the novel. The country club gave the PatimkinÃ¢â¬â¢s a replica of middle class life in America. Since the PatimkinÃ¢â¬â¢s were Jewish they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the opportunity to belong to a regular country club, they belonged to the Jewish one, which is why it was the closest replica of the American dream to them, because they were not allowed to be part of the non-Jewish country clubs. The PatimikinÃ¢â¬â¢s represent the new world, they achieved higher success and they are able to identify with the non-Jewish part of middle class society a lot more then their fellow Jewish immigrants who have not fully assimilated to society. On the other side of the coin there is the Klugman family. They represent the old world. They live in the valley with the rest of the Jewish immigrants and they live meagerly because they do not have that much and they have not gained much success in their lives while living in the United States. The two characters that represent the old and new world are Brenda Patimkin and Neil Klugman. To Neil, Brenda represents what he doe... ...ce her to do something she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really want to do. Brenda too had her faults, she was raised thinking she was a princess, just as Daisy thought that she was special because she had always been raised as a wealthy young girl, and both women always got what they wanted. So when Brenda was with Neil she expected him to treat her the same way her father had always treated her, and she expected to get what she wanted when she wanted it. The conflict between what each person wanted is what lead to the end of both novels. In Goodbye Columbus Neil and Brenda split after Neil realizes that he wants a way out of the relationship, so the two end up breaking up in the end. In The Great Gatsby Daisy and Gatsby never end up together, but GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s undying devotion to Daisy does end up getting him killed. This shows that the theme of sex in both novels is there to prove that it is not always the best thing to have and that it is not the foundation for a very good relationship. Th e theme of sex has more to do with having power, which is something that all of the characters in both novels dream about having. Bibliography The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald Goodbye Columbus, by Philip Roth
Monday, January 13, 2020
Augustus Cain is a good person, despite his background and upbringing he was able to emerge through the narrative. Cain is a man in the corner; his conditions determine his values and morals. He lost himself to himself and his own society. Although, he has lost himself he evolves and turns into a Ã¢â¬Å"soul catcherÃ¢â¬ throughout this novel many times, one of the souls heÃ¢â¬â¢s caught was even his own. He evolved as a person through breaking the four guiding principles constantly that his father said for him to follow. The four guiding principles were that Ã¢â¬Å"one should always respect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s property: that it was necessary to care for protect it, to never misuse it, as it will someday be called upon to care for and protect youÃ¢â¬ (White 31); Ã¢â¬Å"That a Negro was in many ways like a child and it was the moral duty of the white man to look after and guide themÃ¢â¬ (White 31); Ã¢â¬ That his very whiteness not only set him apart from and above them Ã¢â¬â morally, intellectually, physically Ã¢â¬â but that it also linked him in a blood bond with every other white manÃ¢â¬ (White 32); Ã¢â¬ Whites and Negroes were created by the Almighty to be separateÃ¢â¬ (White 32). Cain engages in a forbidden relationship with a black woman named Rosetta. This relationship tests CainÃ¢â¬â¢s character, will, care and decisions. She tests CainÃ¢â¬â¢s will during her bathing in the river. While Rosetta is bathing, Cain is half turned away; Ã¢â¬Å"he felt this to be some sort of test of will, a temptation he felt bound to renounce in order to prove to himself, that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t common, that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t like Preacher or Strofes. That he was differentÃ¢â¬ (White 206). He is also attracted to her in this scene. Post Rosetta exiting the river and him glancing at her and having a hard time averting this stare. He says that Ã¢â¬Å"he felt shamed as a rumbling commenced down between his own legsÃ¢â¬ (White 207) as he looked between hers. When Preacher tries to rape Rosetta, Cain almost kills him out of protection for her. When Rosetta is kidnapped Cain goes and asks around for her, and saysÃ Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m trying to help herÃ¢â¬ (White 287) and pushes onward out of his determination to save her. After saving her Cain is captured by John Brown and says that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t plan to send Rosetta back to Eberly, and Brown believes him and sends him away to a settlement in Ohio called Gist. Cain and Rosetta are laying together in a cabin and Rosetta kisses him, they continue to kiss and begin to remove their clothes. Cain then thought Ã¢â¬Å"He knew that he was crossing a line that he could never cross back over againÃ¢â¬ (White 377) and they made love. Cain is different from the other men that are portrayed in this novel, that are to be thought of as of brothers to him because of the blood bond that they share. Cain is more sympathetic to blacks then the rest. When Preacher is beating Joseph, Cain hates preacher for his mindless cruelty and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe on harming anyone in his Ã¢â¬Å"professionÃ¢â¬ unless it was absolutely necessary. Ã¢â¬Å"He preferred using his wits rather than violence or forceÃ¢â¬ (White 55). He also feels bad for Joseph, so much that he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t ignore Preacher slashing cuts in his body. He says to him Ã¢â¬Å"Alright, thatÃ¢â¬â¢ll be enoughÃ¢â¬ (White 56) and kicks him. He also tells him to stop acting like a cur if he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be treated like one. He degrades him to a dog in this scene. He also tells Joseph that if he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t comply with them that Preacher would hurt him and that Cain himself Ã¢â¬Å"didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want thatÃ¢â¬ (White 58). Post Preacher suggesting they sell the boy and Cain disagreeing and calling it common thievery. Preacher also says that he shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t act so high and mighty and that Ã¢â¬Å"Slave catcher, blackbirder. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re all the same in my bookÃ¢â¬ (White 60). Cain responds that Ã¢â¬Å"No, weÃ¢â¬â¢re not all the same. IÃ¢â¬â¢m carrying out the lawÃ¢â¬ (White 60). This was a point in the novel where Cain again separates himself from his Ã¢â¬Å"brothersÃ¢â¬ and explains that heÃ¢â¬â¢s only doing this because he has to survive and pay off his debt not out of the malicious intent like a blackbirder or most slave catchers. At the end of all this Cain gives the boy a dollar coin to pay him back for his eggs. Cain is compared metaphorically throughout the novel to the people that his whiteness is supposed to set himself apart from. Cain is a runaway. He ran away from the life of a farmer and slave-owner. Ã¢â¬Å"Cain had decided early on that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t cut out for the life of a farmerÃ¢â¬ (White 32). He insteadÃ joins the military to basically escape this inheritance from his father. When he tells Rosetta this she says to him Ã¢â¬Å"that makes you a runaway, too, Cain.Ã¢â¬ (White 245). He also Ã¢â¬Å"runs awayÃ¢â¬ from the problems in his world by drowning himself in the vices, which are also the very things that metaphorically Ã¢â¬Å"enslavesÃ¢â¬ him. He is an alcoholic who constantly drinks laudanum. He has a gambling problem and has sex constantly with prostitutes. He also was tired for working for people like Eberly. These kind of people were white slave owners Ã¢â¬Å"that thought their money made him their niggerÃ¢â¬ (White 11). Also Cain explains to Rosetta that he has to bring her back to Eberly although he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to because of his honor. She says that Ã¢â¬Å"Honor. He done bought and paid for you just like meÃ¢â¬ ; Cain responds Ã¢â¬Å"No one owns meÃ¢â¬ ; Rosetta says Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, he own you, all right. The only difference between them was that she knows it and he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬ (White 210). Cain is overall a different person at the end of this novel. He has involved in interracial affairs with a black woman. He hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t respected the technically Ã¢â¬Å"propertyÃ¢â¬ of another man which would be Rosetta to Eberly, by not returning her to him, which ofcourse was the right thing to do. He is also acknowledged by Rosetta and other people in the novel even John Brown, as a Ã¢â¬Å"good manÃ¢â¬ .
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Sample Article Critique Article critique requires students to make a critical analysis of another paper, often an essay, book or journal article. Regardless of your major whether it be psychology or economics, for example, you are likely to perform this kind of assignment at some point. For students, it is a great way to explore the research process itself, interpret its results and discuss their impact. There are several formatting styles, including the Modern Language Association (MLA) format and the American Psychological Association (APA) format, that may be applied when writing critique papers. Each of the styles has its particular rules and guidelines, and unless you follow them carefully, your chances to get low grades for the paper are rather high.Ã In the sample article below, we will use one of the most popular and recommended by professors around the globe formats APA style. Article Critique. Multinational Enterprises, Development and Globalization: Some Clarifications and a Research Agenda The involvement of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in domestic markets has become a key component of the development policy of many developing countries. MNEs can have a decisive impact on the development of countries, but the effectiveness of an FDI-based development strategy depends on a number factors. Article Ã¢â¬ËMultinational Enterprises, Development, and Globalization: Some clarifications and a research agendaÃ¢â¬â¢ by R. Narula and J. Dunning published in Oxford Development Studies provides in-depth analysis on effects of economic globalization for developing countries that follow a strategy based on attracting MNE investments. The authors use analysis as well as principles of macro- and microeconomics to relate to the subject of MNEs and development, and they try to find a conclusive understanding on how to explain the success of some regions or countries in promoting economic growth, and the failure of others. Narula and Dunning point out that the MNEs can have a decisive influence on the development of countries. This notion is entirely reasonable, and particularly true considering global imbalances. Nevertheless, though proved more effective, the involvement of such corporations is not the only development strategy that is available to developing countries. The authors do not provide an adequate explanation that only together with other forms of local involvement of MNEs, direct foreign investment can be a direct path to structural change and will help break the vicious circle of poverty and weak development. There are also some other questionable issues that are concluded in this article. In their review of development strategies of countries, Narula and Dunning provide an example of Asian economies. The authors stress that Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea were the most effective in the involvement of MNEs after the Second World War. These countries pursued a restrictive FDI policy, identifying the priority of technology transfer, licensing and reverse engineering as mechanisms for obtaining foreign knowledge. At the same time, Narula and Dunning provide successful examples neither of other regions nor liberalized FDI policies. It is also worth mentioning that the world has changed significantly over the last three decades, which means that conducting such strategies today will not necessarily lead to the same results. One factor not addressed in the paper is that FDI flows are not all the same with each other. The quality of FDI received by the country is as important as the quantity. The quality relates to the MNEs investment motives, mandate, and autonomy of the branches, and this will have a direct impact on the potential of secondary effects from the MNE. Therefore, a feasible policy towards FDI should not be exclusively linked to capital investment, but also consider strengthening the local MNEs roots. Taking everything into account, I can conclude that Narula and Dunning give some interesting insights and well thought out on the subject ofÃ multinational enterprisesÃ¢â¬â¢ effects on developing countries. The article provides a substantial amount of data and includes some graphic illustrations. Nonetheless, for a complete evaluation to be made, the authors should focus more on the quality of the investment flows and their secondary effects as well as determine recommendations for different types of developing countries, considering their economic, social and political systems, on the strategies towards MNEs they are to follow. References: Narula, R., Dunning, J. H. (2010). Multinational Enterprises, Development and Globalization: Some Clarifications and a Research Agenda.Ã Oxford Development Studies,38(3), 263-287. doi:10.1080/13600818.2010.505684
Friday, December 27, 2019
In conversation analysis, the cooperative principle is the assumption that participants in a conversation normally attempt to be informative, truthful, relevant, and clear. The concept was introduced by philosopher H. Paul Grice in his 1975 article Logic and Conversation in which he argued that talk exchanges were not merely a succession of disconnected remarks, and would not be rational if they were. Grice suggested instead that meaningful dialogue is characterized by cooperation. Each participant recognizes in them, to some extent, a common purpose or set of purposes, or at least a mutually accepted direction. Key Takeaways: Grice's Conversational Maxims Grice expanded his cooperative principle with the four following conversational maxims, which he believed anyone wishing to engage in meaningful, cogent conversation must follow:Quantity: Say no less than the conversation requires. Say no more than the conversation requires.Quality: Dont say what you believe to be false. Dont say things for which you lack evidence.Manner: Dont be obscure. Dont be ambiguous. Be brief. Be orderly.Relevance: Be relevant. Observations on the Cooperative Principle Here are some thoughts on the Cooperative Principle from some acknowledged sources on the subject: We might then formulate a rough general principle which participants will be expected (ceteris paribus) to observe, namely: Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged. One might label this the Cooperative Principle.(From Logic and Conversation by H. Paul Grice) [T]heÃ sum and substance of the CooperativeÃ Principle might be put this way: Do whatever is necessary to achieve the purpose of your talk; dont do anything that will frustrate that purpose.(From Communication and Reference by Aloysius Martinich) People undoubtedly can be tight-lipped, long-winded, mendacious, cavalier, obscure, ambiguous, verbose, rambling, or off-topic. But on closer examination, they are far less so than they could be, given the possibilities. . . Because human hearers can count on some degree of adherence to the maxims, they can read between the lines, weed out unintended ambiguities, and connect the dots when they listen and read.(From The Stuff of Thought by Steven Pinker) Cooperation vs. Agreeableness According to Istvan Kecskes,Ã author of Intercultural Pragmatics, there is a distinction between cooperative communication and being cooperative on a social level.Ã Kecskes believes that the Cooperative Principle isnt about being positive or socially smooth or agreeable, but rather, its a presumption when someone speaks, they have the expectation as well the intention of communicating. Likewise, they expect the person to whom theyre speaking to facilitate the effort. This is why even when people fight or disagree to the point that those engaged in the conversation are being less than pleasant or cooperative, the Cooperative Principle keeps the conversation going. Even if individuals are aggressive, self-serving, egotistic, and so on, Kecskes explains, and not quite focusing on the other participants of the interaction, they cant have spoken at all to someone else without expecting that something would come out of it, that there would be some result, and that the other person/s was/were engaged with them. Kecskes maintains that this core principle of intent is essential to communication. Example: Jack Reachers Telephone Conversation The operator answeredÃ and I asked for ShoemakerÃ and I got transferred, maybe elsewhere in the building, or the country, or the world, and after a bunch of clicksÃ and hisses and some long minutes of dead air Shoemaker came on the line and said Yes? This is Jack Reacher, I said. Where are you? Dont you have all kinds of automatic machines to tell you that? Yes, he said. Youre in Seattle, on a payphoneÃ down by the fish market. But we prefer it when people volunteer the information themselves. We find that makes the subsequent conversation go better. Because theyre already cooperating. Theyre invested. In what? The conversation. Are we having a conversation? Not really.(From Personal by Lee Child.) The Lighter Side of the Cooperative Principle Sheldon Cooper: Ive been giving the matter some thought, and I think Id be willing to be a house pet to a race of superintelligent aliens.Ã¢â¬â¹ Leonard Hofstadter: Interesting.Ã¢â¬â¹ Sheldon Cooper: Ask me why?Ã¢â¬â¹ Leonard Hofstadter: Do I have to?Ã¢â¬â¹ Sheldon Cooper: Of course. Thats how you move a conversation forward.(From an exchange between Jim Parsons andÃ Johnny Galecki, The Financial Permeability episode of The Big Bang Theory, 2009) Sources Grice, H. Paul. Logic and Conversation. Syntax and Semantics, 1975. Reprinted in Studies in the Way of Words. Harvard UniversityÃ Press, 1989Martinich, Aloysius.Ã Communication and Reference.Ã Walter de Gruyter, 1984Pinker, Steven. The Stuff of Thought. Viking, 2007Kecskes,Ã Istvan. Intercultural Pragmatics. Oxford University Press,Ã 2014
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Throughout the first part of this semester we have read and discussed several topics relating to Public Administration. In this essay I will discuss the differences between bureaucracy, democracy, and citizenships, how these three topics effect our society, and current issues within local governments. Before one can begin to understand the issues between bureaucracy, democracy, and citizens, we must first define each word. Starting with the word citizen, as it is the easiest to define. A citizen is someone who is a legal resident of a specific area (i.e. town, city, county, state, or country). The second definition is democracy which is a way to run a government so that citizens have a vested interest in the decision making process through the process of electing representatives. This is what the United States of America is based upon, regularly held elections for citizens to vote upon who will represent their needs, wishes, and desires. Lastly, bureaucracy is, a system within our democratic government, which is used to delegate non-elected individuals who will enforce and oversee decisions made by our elected representatives. Therefore, one could say, a bureaucrat is a Public Administrator because they are non-elected, state employees whose job is to create, enact, and oversee policies for decisions made by our government. So, to summarize, local representatives are chosen by citizens through the use of democracy and the policies approved through our democratic systemShow MoreRelatedBureaucracy Is An Efficient System Bureaucracy1715 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesonce said This passion for bureaucracy ... is enough to drive one to despair. It s as if in politics...we were deliberately to become men who need order and nothing but order (www.goodreads.com). Max Weber brings attention to the consequences of bureaucracy. Although bureaucracy is an efficient system that allows maximum production to occur, bureaucracy has resulted in the loss of individualism and is particularly undemocratic. In public administration, bureaucracy plays a major role in howRead MoreChuang Tzu s Basic Writings Essay1558 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand ineffable, seem to suggest a minimalist take on government. The Daoist philosophy present in the text has no room for organized hierarchy or u nified morality in the understanding of the world. This leaves no room for government whose laws and bureaucracy are based on codified morality and hierarchy. The government must also allow its citizens to practice the wu-wei, which means the government would have to allow individual freedom. Thus the only suitable form of government following Ã¢â¬Å"the wayÃ¢â¬ wouldRead MoreThe Case For Bureaucracy : A Public Administration Polemic Essay1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTo the extent that US bureaucracy succeeds, it is due not just to the competent work inside individual organization but the competent interactions among them.Ã¢â¬ (Goodsell 2008) This quote from GoodsellÃ¢â¬â¢s book sums up the book perfectly for me when it comes to the tasks that society puts on bureaucrats. Before reading Charles GoodsellÃ¢â¬â¢s, The Case for Bureaucracy: A Public Administration Polemic, I did not appreciate the United States Government and what is accomplishes on a daily basis. GoodsellÃ¢â¬â ¢sRead MoreModern States Are The Status Quo Essay1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnationalism. While these extreme statements seem irrational, a nationalistic ideology forced upon citizens, has become the foundation to maintaining and developing the modern state. Although, this has not always been the case throughout history. Developed between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries, the modern state changed the properties of an effective rule, and thus played challenging roles within Ã¢â¬Å"lateÃ¢â¬ developed states such as in India and Nigeria. Modernization of the statehood has developed overRead MoreImportance Of Information Technology ( It ) And The Importance Of Of Public Administration977 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesObservation: The importance of information technology (IT) and the importance of e-democracy utilized everyday administration implementation. Furthermore, understanding the external environment found within public administration, which influence and examines the differences between the public and private sectors, and its major topics that these organizations faces with such technology. Understanding its theories of e-democracy and discussing the declining confidence in the regime. Also, how the role ofRead MoreFreedom Of Religion And Human Rights1638 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis considered human nature or some sorts, but in certain region with a certain cultures, the ideas of freedom often considered as a false conduct. It was stated that Ã¢â¬Å"in the face of mounting tensions between different human rights concerns some observers even assume an abstract antagonism exists between freedom of religion or belief and certain other human rights, such as freedom of expression, gender equality, or LGBTI-r ights.Ã¢â¬ (Bielefeldt 3). The most recent phenomenon that have been causing so muchRead MoreSimilarities And Contributions Of Ancient Egypt And Ancient Greek Cultures722 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesduring a certain timeframe, during 1150 BC to 146 BC, in which contact between them involve a wide range of people and played on a variety of platforms. Despite being two of the most powerful ancient civilizations, both dynasties presented different social structures. The difference and similarities between them can especially be seen in the people, its government and how the society was shaped. History have shown that the differences in the political and social scenes are due particularly by the geographicalRead MorePresident of the United States and Civil Liberties Essay3182 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pageswell as the basic characteristics of CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s State legislature, as presented in Matthew JarvisÃ¢â¬â¢s chapter on the California State legislature in California Government in National Perspective, explain the mos t important similarities and differences between the U.S. Congress and the California State legislature. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Both are bicameral. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Both have the Senate as the upper house. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Both the Assembly and the US House are led by a Speaker. 3. Define agenda setting in general termsRead MoreEssay about Liberal Democracy1177 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLiberal democracy Introduction To begin with Francis Fukuyamas, provocative thesis, that after the fall of communism in Europe and the withering of the grand ideological contests, history too has ended. In his end of history theory, he maintained that the western liberal democracy had become the `final form of human government. The fact is that though not all theorists have this kind of a faith in liberal democracy, and believe that its not the only feasible form of democracy, they areRead MoreThe Main Factors Of The Democratic Breakdowns And Which Are The Factors That Affect The Political System?1827 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesto pressure over the political system. The opposition, even if it is a majority, must to have the power to break down the democracy to be successful and that depend on other factors as geographical patterns and economic index for example. For being coherent with the argument I will analyze in first place the importance of the institutional structure for the state and democracy break downs, and later I will connect this discussion with the some of the different factors that intervene in a democratic